Using the E-FROST research analysis tool, all previously processed sections with ER data were reprocessed using the enhanced analysis methodology presented in chapter 4, and new frost depths and layer estimates were determined. The analysis results, as well as the LTPP computed parameters developed under this project, were reviewed thoroughly. The schematic location of LTPP sites used in the frost penetration analysis study is shown in figure Data from 21, dates were analyzed, and frost penetration depths were estimated. There were between 2 and 11 years of data analyzed for the different LTPP sites. Detailed frost penetration results were reported in two LTPP computed parameters tables discussed later in this chapter.
Frost action can be quite detrimental to pavements and refers to two separate but related processes:. Frost heaving of soil is caused by crystallization of ice within the larger soil voids and usually a subsequent extension to form continuous ice lenses, layers, veins, or other ice masses. An ice lens grows through capillary rise and thickens in the direction of heat transfer until the water supply is depleted or until freezing conditions at the freezing interface no longer support further crystallization. Thus, the degree of frost susceptibility is mainly a function of the percentage of fine particles within the soil. Many agencies classify materials as being frost susceptible if 10 percent or more passed a 0.
Frost damage to building foundations, retaining walls, driveways, walks and similar structures is common throughout Canada, and although it is not equally serious in all areas the resultant cost each year is high. This Digest contains a brief description of the physical processes involved in ground freezing and frost heaving and some suggestions on ways to prevent or diminish frost damage to various structures. The results of frost heaving have been observed from earliest times. Swedish literature dating back to the 17th century indicates that the uplifting of boulders in the field and the breaking of plant roots in the winter were associated with frost heaving.
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